My friend and colleague Tove Hermanson, who wrote for Worn Through for a long time (!) interviewed me for her blog Thread for Thought. We talked about some of the concepts behind my book Punk Style and a little about my background which led me to this research.
It is what they wear on their heads that receives the viewer, elaborately embroidered caps that bring to mind the 17th and 18th centuries, though they are a Danish style from the nineteenth. The shape of these caps will inevitably retain associations with childhood bonnets, demure femininity and hair-covering (to protect as well as to hide). For those not familiar with traditional Danish clothing, the photographs may conjure Vermeer’s young women and other famous Dutch portraits.
Trine Søndergaard’s new book, Stasis, is a compilation of three of her photographic series, Strude, Guldnakke, and Interiors. Sparse hallways and luminously grey windows of abandoned Danish mansions are interspersed with her portraits of young women in traditional Danish headwear and clothing. The two portrait series seem as though they could have been done simultaneously, with similar poses and composition, and they are both inquiries into the meanings of national and personal identity. But they have individual power that is only reinforced in a collection like this. It seems possible that the bonneted women could walk those halls, throw open those windows.
Immediate and still, the portraits require your attention despite the negative body language. I was so drawn to the intricate embroidery and construction of the caps in Guldnakke that I didn’t notice the young women’s clothing until the cultural and temporal contrasts made one jump out: in Guldnakke #9, a thick silver embroidered crown accented with white lace and bound with thick black ribbon of an intricate jacquard rose pattern is paired with a white lace top with black gothic lettering, underlined by a black spaghetti-strap tank and visible white bra straps.
I paged back through and realized I had missed a faded t-shirt with an American flag motif, chain-store “jersey” t-shirts. The intention and intricacy of the headpieces, and possibly the repetitive-seeming nature of the poses, had encouraged me to flip through, noting the differences between each photograph but not those contained therein.
Originally, bonnets such as these were “traditional piece[s] of headwear for well-to-do women in the mid-nineteenth-century Danish countryside. This tradition has a fine touch to it, as the golden fabrics from which most of the caps were made were until then the privilege of royalty and nobility.” (12) Are these historic pieces, reconstructions? Does it matter?
As Mieke Bal notes in her accompanying text, “Different from the bonnets in the Strude series, which were characterized by a functional conception (protecting the women from the elements), those appear in the Guldnakke series share an ambition: they signify the ostentation of wealth.” (12) How does their pairing with modern, mass-market clothing coax meaning from the portraits, affect the choice to use each specific bonnet?
The portraits are faceless and nameless, although not uninviting; the wearers are all turned away from us but seem as though they could turn to face us at any moment. But they will not, and the bonnets, then, become the subjects, obscuring almost all natural identifying characteristics with their flat, teardrop faces. The women are “scaffolding for [the artist's] investigation.” Disregarding any socio-emotional reasons for posing the women this way, seeing the back of a garment or hat in art is special, although perhaps less so today. Bal compares Søndergaard’s work with that of Vilhelm Hammershøi, who was also interested in representing the back.
Interspersed within the portraits, as well as between them, are the Interior shots. These are spaces, entrances and exitways, transitory but not in motion; a photograph from this series graces the cover [at top]. Bal ties the three together: ”Both of her series of women wearing elaborate headresses–Strude and Guldnakke–and the series Interior, taken inside empty, abandoned buildings, refuse the exchange of gazes.” (8)
In Strude, women are wrapped in fabric covering the hair and face instead of a structured and pleated cap. We may see faces in this series, although many are covered. There is a whiff of protest fashion in the visuals, with eyes the only visible feature on a darkly wrapped head, a two-piece balaclava. These scarves and face coverings are direct descendants of Danish folk dress from the island of Fanø. In archival photographs, the women never seem to be without one scarf wrapped around the neck and another tied securely around the head, covering her hair. Søndergaard travelled to this small island off the west coast of Denmark to shoot Strude, although with the exception of the photo quality, the portraits do not betray a specific time or place. As part of a folk dress tradition, the head wraps are both very dated and “old fashioned” as well as being somewhat timeless, or at least suspended in time; they will never be fashionable, so they never will go out of style.
A strude, strictly defined, is a face covering. Composed of one over- and one under-piece with holes cut for the eyes, this garment protected the wearer from strong wind and sun while working in the countryside:
Søndegaard suggests that this series was inspired not only by an interest in an extant strude in a museum on Fanø, but also by a critical debate in Denmark at the time surrounding the wearing of veils by Muslim residents. What is provocative about covering a woman’s face and hair, and who may choose to do so?
Although they are portraits in the sense that both Strude and Guldnakke are series of women’s necks, heads, and occasionally faces, these are unnamed personages. Folk dress is so tied to local identity (as well as national pride) that it has become iconic, and is rarely truly personalized in recreations today. The wearer becomes a vehicle for tradition, especially as very few (if any) wear these outfits other than on holidays. ”Søndergaard deploys the medium of portraiture to make images of faces in which individuality is overshadowed by similarity. … Danish faces are hidden, turning away, or otherwise obscured.” (7)
She has chosen similar posing in earlier series, including Monochrome , but the use of specific clothing in the series collected in Stasis adds another layer to the similarities and obscuration.
Published by German firm Hatje Cantz, the aesthetics of the book are as serene as the photographs, with large white spaces and a greyscale color scheme.
The photographs are printed in large format, featured on the right-hand page while facing a blank, white page. These many pages are bound on the right-hand side of the cover, which opens flat as a self-contained for viewing the works.
There is an accompanying text mounted on the left. Its physical remove from the photographs themselves allow the reader to consult it–or not, read the academic critical essays first or last, focus on the artistic works or flip back and forth. I found that the side-by-side placement has another great function: one can open to the photograph referenced and keep the text open as well. Works best when the text is on the left.
I really liked Bal’s challenge to those seeking meaning in painting and portraiture, or a “why?”. Here she writes of Vermeer’s The Girl With the Pearl Earring :
Why would she have a pearl earring became a key question [sic]. The answer? She had to be a servant girl with whom the master is enamored, and so on. Let the romance begin. This romantic thinking endeavors to overwrite the one impossible explanation: that she, a simple girl, just possesses a pearl earring. (8)
Mostly because it questioned my own reading of the work, my desire to understand why these women were wrapped with calico and lace, why these traditional garments were being recreated or mimicked, and subsequently photographed. There must be a reason; these photographs are heavy with intention! The framing of the head, the repetition, the juxtaposition: I dutifully did the costume history research to figure it out. And this is probably how I prefer to interact with art, pleased with my knowingness and totally subscribing to the traditional hierarchies of knowledge, but I hardly think it’s the best way. How important it is it to be an informed audience? What will these photographs communicate without a previous familiarity with Danish folk dress?
Bal wonders, “[w]hat kind of discourse is this? Uninvited, I am detailing, and worse, judging, by calling the face beautiful, the face of another person who refrains from engaging in eye contact with me.” But as “[w]rong-headed as it was, the outcome of my compulsion to judge was neither wrong nor arbitrary. The image pushed me to do it.” (11) I too felt the need to give my own analysis and experience of viewing the photographs here, drawn to use the works as documentation of material culture. What is it about her work that encourages these responses?
Bal’s essay goes so enthusiastically into art theoretical readings of the collected works that I felt it began to disconnect me from the photographs themselves. When is a ribbon just a ribbon, and when is it a commentary on balance and color theory? From thoughtful challenges and self-criticism she jumps into long, sometimes “wrong” descriptions of the clothing (as much as one can call another’s observation wrong): in an overwrought paragraph about intersecting lines and abstraction of colors, Bal suggests that the stripes of a printed jersey top are not printed but instead “bands of braided fabric” (I maintain that they are printed; bygones). This may be some conceptual, irrealistic observation of the fabric that I didn’t pick up on, similar to her allusive description of the same girl’s earring as a “perhaps blue, perhaps green pearl,” referencing her commentary on Vermeer earlier in the essay. The book benefits greatly from Bal’s essay, but some intermediary information might have been nice for newcomers like me. I imagine it was a very intentional choice on the part of the editors and publisher not to include descriptions and information from the artist; I admire the format and the primacy of the image. In any case, it’s plenty easy to look up interviews with the author, read her own artist’s statement on her website.
What does Stasis contribute to the discussion around the use and relevancy of historic dress and its role in identity production? With my background interest in Scandinavian folk dress, I was immediately drawn to the objects depicted, and the posing, the light, etc all came afterward. That Søndergaard named each series and each photograph with the name of the dress object is significant. With the exception of fashion photographs (which is hardly always about the garments), clothing can be incidental in art photography; here it nearly obfuscates the wearers. Stasis would be an excellent jumping-off point for a review of clothing used in art photography; there are dozens of books on fashion photography, and a range of books on fashion and art (is it?), but not enough that examine the use of dress as a function of art. (Leave tips about your favorite works on the subject in the comments section!)
Trine Søndergaard’s use of headwear from Danish folk dress and clothing history has produced simply beautiful, still photographs, with deep currents underneath. The thoughtful fashion historian will regard this work as a chance to challenge and revisit the fabrics and composition of our dress and textile histories, how certain garments or styles evolve over time–or not–and what their changing use means to us socially. Their meanings are never static–even if they can feel staid or stuffy. Portraits will always reflect the time in which the are produced, although they may express ideas and ideals instead of an “accurate” mirror image of popular style. This may include nineteenth-century painters dressing models in classical clothing to encourage a “timeless” and unbound reading of their genius, teenagers in the faddiest formal fashions for a prom photo, or using very specifically dated dress objects from a country’s history to examine our relationships with nationality, identity, and the self.
Lead Photo Credit: Cover of Stasis, by Trine Søndergaard. Ostfildern, Germany: Hatje Cantz, 2014.
Find more Book Reviews on Worn Through here!
Watch a video interview with Søndergaard on the Louisiana Channel here. [English subtitles]
Andersen, Ellen. Folkedragter i Danmark. Copenhagen, 1952.
Bright, Susan, ed. Face of Fashion. London: National Portrait Gallery, 2007.
Brilliant, Richard. Portraiture. London: Reaktion, 1991.
Ditner, Judy, ed. Dress Codes: The Third ICP Triennial of Photo and Video.
Guggenheim Museum Soho. Art/Fashion. New York: 1996.
Kunstmuseum Wolfsberg. Art and Textile: Fabric as Material and Concept in Modern Art from Klimt to the Present. Ostfildern, Germany: Hatje Cantz, 2014.
There is something inspiring about watching an exhibition come together. I first experienced this when I worked with the FIDM Museum on their first travelling exhibition, Modern love. Two weeks ago, I was one of a number of volunteers who helped install the San Jose Museum of Quilts & Textile‘s (SJMQT)latest exhibition, Metamorphosis: Clothing & Identity – where I had the opportunity not only to see the exhibition come together, but to watch it go up.
Metamorphosis opened a week ago, and is already getting rave reviews such as this one from Art Nerd Blog by an acquaintance of mine, Sarah Lorraine.
The exhibition tells the story of the wearable art, or art wear, movement that originated in Northern California — specifically the San Francisco Bay Area — in the 1960s. As Sarah put it in her review, the art wear movement was a sort of “spiritual love child of the arts & crafts movement”. The movement’s purpose was taking the mundane — clothing off the rack, traditional crafts such as knitting and crochet — and transforming it into self expression and statements of identity that you could wear. The movement quickly began integrating traditional dyeing and weaving techniques from around the world such as shibori, ikat, resist and clamp dyeing, etc., as well as rediscovering of historical techniques, such as Ellen Hauptil’s works which use industrial heat-set pleats that mimic the Delphi gown and others by Mariano Fortuny.
‘The idea of this exhibition came about as a part of the larger story/background that the museum is trying to tell about the history of the rich and diverse Nothern California/San Francisco Bay Area fiber arts scene that we call Founding Fibers‘, I was told by curator Deborah Corsini. This larger story began in 2011, when the museum held an exhibition, Invisible Lineage, focusing on the four major founders of the fiber arts movement: Kathleen Westphal, Lydia Van Gelder, Mary Walker Phillips, and Mary Balzer Buskirk. Lineage also included works by four next-generation artists carrying on the tradition. Metamorphosis showcases not only the entirety of the movement, and showing that despite attention having fallen away from art wear in the last decade or so (the movement thrived from the 60s through the 1990s), it is still going strong.
Deborah told me that she ‘wanted to include work that used clothing as a vehicle for conceptual idea – completely unwearable but transformed. These pieces of knitted wire dresses, the yurt-like tent of ties, and the flattened, vintage assemblage pieces, evoke memory, loss, and transformation of something common and universal into another realm, another perspective. This show is possibly just the beginning of other clothing conceived shows as I realize their are a lot of other contemporary artists working in the field making artwear and/or more conceptual clothing.’
All of the pieces are on loan from the artists themselves, with the exception of four pieces loaned by the Levi’s Archives which were submissions for Levi’s 1973 denim art competition (no photographs of these, I’m afraid — no matter how entertaining the Watergate-themed jeans with Nixon’s face peering at you from the fly). With this notable exception, Deborah visited as many of the artists as she could in their studios — working with others through the internet — and collaborated with them on selecting those pieces that would make the strongest statement. There are pieces by Kaffe Fassett (as a knitter I have seen his work in Rowan and other magazines, and his patterns, but until installation none of his actual knitwear pieces), Marion Clayden, Jean Cacicedo, Ina Kozel, Wendeanne Ke’aka Stitt, Ana Lisa Hedstrom, K. Lee Manuel, Angelina De Antonis of Ocelot, and Carol Lee Shanks among others. The exhibition ends with a yurt made of silk neckties that visitors can walk through by Isaac Amala and Liz Simpson (which was not finished installing by the time I had to head home).
Another fantastic addition to a textiles show: Deborah received ‘touching samples’ from many of the artists so that while you can’t touch the pieces, you can still feel the textiles they are made from.
Due to the breadth of the show, Deborah had to limit herself (and the artists) to only five or six pieces maximum per artist. One of the best things about the show is that it has so many objects in it without overwhelming the visitor, or losing the thread of the exhibition’s purpose. Deborah had a rough idea of how she wanted things placed, but most of that changed when it came to the actual installation, because there is only so much you can do with a scale model and in the case of many of these pieces, a photo really isn’t enough.
This was also my first experience mounting objects on dress forms without supervision. It is probably best that I did it with contemporary art wear pieces rather than historic garments (not suggesting the former are inferior to the latter, but the damage done would have been less had I dropped any of them!). It was a unique and wonderful challenge that I very much enjoyed — especially finding a way to mount the hat that accompanied the Janet Liptkin piece below without a head mount and without endangering either piece). Deborah also included me in her process for creating the final arrangements (none of which you see here, since I was taking pictures in between mounting and moving forms), so that I could see her entire process and really feel like I was involved in the exhibition itself. It was amazing to see how a shift from one place to another, grouping certain pieces together, or even just proper lighting could completely transform the garments — emphasizing various artistic qualities, textures, colours, and so on.
Having had some bad volunteer experiences, I could tell that the Museum of Quilts & Textiles treated their volunteers well not just because I was one, but from the sheer number of people who had shown up to dedicate their time to the installation. What’s more, I was the only “newbie”, everyone else had assisted with previous installations and de-installations. In my opinion, that speaks volumes about the museum itself and its ability to cope in the current economic environment and make use of limited resources.
It is rather embarrassing to admit, since I’m a fourth-generation Californian, but I didn’t know too much about the art wear movement before working on this exhibition. I knew that it existed, and that it was a ‘California thing’, but not much more. And so I find myself, once again being introduced to textile art, and educated about it by the San Jose Museum of Quilts & Textiles. Deborah Corsini tells me that the aim of the exhibition is to showcase ‘ the incredible richness and diversity of the art wear movement and the continued legacy of this movement. We want to give our audience a sense of the vitality and creativity of the times and to show the wide variety of artistic achievement by this unique group of artists that were creating art-to-wear.’
Through working with the objects, she’s succeeded with me.
The show is open from 29 January through 27 April. Be sure to check out Deborah’s article in the Winter 2014 volume of ‘Fiber Art Now‘.
I will be writing about the FIDM Museum’s Hollywood show in my next column, but if you have any North American events or exhibitions you would like me to feature here on Domestic Affairs be sure to email me the details.
Since I was able to afford to buy my own clothes, I have been a committed fan of charity shops, or chazza shops as they are also known here in the UK. It was not just because they were cheap, and it felt like the best thing to have bought several outfits for twenty pounds. It was also, and continues to be, a complete thrill to find garments that came with an incomplete story, where I could then attempt to fill in the gaps like identifying particular labels, certain cuts or different fabrics. I have always been fascinated by the way in which charity shops try so hard to exorcise donations of their previous owners and yet it is this connection with the past that makes them such highly prized items of consumption. I was over the moon when Second-hand Cultures by Nicky Gregson and Louise Crewe was published in 2003 because here was a text that was putting my sense of joy and intellectual curiosity about charity shops into a valid academic context.
Yet, more than being able to piece together a puzzle, I could also add to their sartorial tales. Even now, I can locate a piece of clothing by where I bought it and what I was doing at the time so, in this way, my wardrobe is a museum of me. I can continually experience my own social, cultural and economic history through what I wear. My clothes tell the story of not just British charity shops but also of places such as Montreal’s Value Villages, Berlin’s Humana department store or the huge Salvation Army warehouse on the outskirts of Buenos Aires.
I grew up in the throes of charity shop expansion across Britain, where we now have around 5,000 across the country representing a myriad of charitable organisations. Having set up the first charity shop in 1949 and with the lion’s share of shops, ‘Oxfam’ became a firm colloquial expression for any charity shop one might visit or donate to on a British high street. By the 1980s, these unique institutions were busy professionalising their interiors with co-ordinated fixtures and staff training for volunteers. However, this could be seen as slightly ironic, given that charity shops are not legally ‘shops’ but rather sites for the exchange of gifts, which means they benefit from large tax exemptions, unlike ordinary retailers.
Since the 2000s, charity shops have been criticised for their role in a very profitable but under scrutinised global economy of textile redistribution, where charities deal in overseas markets via private brokers. A great book that explains this complex relationship between your local charity shop and a distant market in an African country is Karen Tranberg Hansen’s Saluala: The World of Secondhand Clothing and Zambia, which I recommend for anyone interested in this subject.
Interestingly, knowing this has not yet stopped me from visiting charity shops. In fact, this only makes me more enthusiastic to engage with these places, perhaps because shopping there does go some way to reducing what is brokered elsewhere. Most charity shops can only sell 20 percent of donations given, which means they are under incredible pressure to redistribute waste within an already small second-hand cycle of goods. This is why I particularly like TRAID (Textile Recycling for Aid and International Development), a small group of charity shops based only in London and Brighton. Their aim is to be a shop for, not of, textile recycling, where clothes on sale are often reworked donations by employed designers using donations. What is exciting about TRAID as a charity shop experience is that they have sales where everything is two pounds, something that is very uncommon across nearly all other charity shops but arguably helps to reduce the quantity of unsaleable stock.
Recently, another layer to these secondhand stories was made when I found myself in a local charity shop face to face with an old student who had recently taken on the role of assistant manager. My arms full of threaded possibilities, we discussed how the shop had streamlined its layout, with clothing arranged by colour, not just size or type.
In my experience, these peculiar retailers have always oscillated between the jumble sale and the department store as retail models of spatial organisation. This is because their design arguably evokes ideas and values held about the notion of charity. A charity shop presents a complex location where ethical imperatives bash against monetary gains. Not just a site of interaction between customer and retailer, the charity shop often involves three parties: the volunteers who make hands on decisions about what to sell and not to sell, the potential customer who will bring in funds and finally, but perhaps most importantly, the donors whom have certain expectations about what happens to their ‘gifts’.
Donors can prefer to observe charity shops as places with little organisation, similar in form to a jumble sale, because it suggests that their philanthropic input is much needed. However, from a consumer perspective, a department store layout is more conducive to someone who may have little desire to shop there or is unsure of what to look for. It is often the aim of the charitable organisation to appear just as professional as for-profit retailers on the same high street, both as a way to remain competitive and to prove their worth to the customer. It is not unusual to find a customer asking for a discount in a charity shop, as happened while I was chatting to my old student. The move away from the jumble look is also a move away from haggling and discounts, all of which is possible when the goods on sale are essentially gifts.
Yet, there is another consumer, who prefers the messier approach as it provides he/she with the opportunity to ‘find’ something of value, rather than being told what it is through various visual arrangements. These are often the more middle-class sort, who see themselves as amateur connoisseurs and deplore those who try to take that away from them. Admittedly, as the conversation came to an end between myself and my student about the new changes to the shop, it was clear I had become that middle-class sort. While I was bemoaning what I saw as negative change, my student was praising it as positive innovation. My student, in her new role as manager, saw the visual opportunities associated with the re-organisation whereas I felt slightly cheated out of personal opportunities to ‘discover’ valuable goods!
On final reflection, I think charity shops are intriguing places, where all sorts of expectations and assumptions are thrown up in the air. Part of the wonder is their attempt to catch and put these down into some kind of order. I would really like to explore this topic further, especially with the idea of charity shop as cultural metaphor or how they can act as spaces for memory making. If anyone is already doing this, or has any related thoughts about their experience of charity shops, please do get in touch.
We are certainly enjoying a Schiaparelli moment: following the revival of the couture house by Diego della Valle seconded by Farida Khelfa and Marco Zanini and the Prada/Schiaparelli exhibition held at the MET in 2012, the auction house, Christie’s has organised an exceptional sale of her personal collection in Paris, on the 23rd January 2014.
Marisa Berenson, the granddaughter of the iconic 1930s fashion designer decided to let go of about 180 pieces illustrating the personal taste of Elsa Schiaparelli – an eccentric time capsule made of art pieces, furniture, sketches, clothing and accessories.
No need to play with suspense, the auction was a real success. The pre-sale estimate was doubled and reached a total of 1.686.250 €. In the sale’s top ten appear such pieces as a pair of carved marble leopards, an Alberto Giacometti lamp, Aubusson tapestries along photographies of the designer by Man Ray and Horst P. Horst. But fashion was not left aside as a Balenciaga plaid as well as an ensemble of Schiaparelli patterns reached elevated prices.
It is not the first time Christie’s delivers important fashion auctions (past memorable examples include Anna Piaggi or Vivienne Westwood’s personal collections) but it is the first time it takes place in Paris and no better time nor place could have been chosen at the peak of the haute couture season.
All that made the Italian fashion designer unique could be observed during the collection’s exhibition: her love for fantasy and surrealism – an art movement she deeply collaborated with, the close relationship between art and fashion – an association the auction house has ingenuously accounted with its presentation mingling fashion pieces and art objects, her strong taste for oriental aesthetics and the legendary shocking pink.
How interesting to inspect the inventive environment La Schiap lived in and what she loved to wear. Fashion wise, she definitely had a thing for furs (on the 49 fashion related lots, 12 are fur pieces), she also privileged oriental wear inspired by her Tunisian home and I can definitely imagine her lounging around in those vivid and precious tunics and dresses and finally, when it comes to the garments she would select from her personal brand, embroidered tops seemed to be favoured. How exciting to observe for real the ‘Astrologie’ collection with its key piece: a violet silk blouse embroidered by Lesage and the impressive 1940 beaded rodeo waistcoat that Karl Lagerfeld would have probably loved to have in his Paris/Dallas show. I also fell deeply in love with an embroidered shocking pink bolero: a feminine and sensual matador.
As for the furniture and various objects that adorned her interior, there was definitely something of a Renaissance ‘cabinet de curiosités’ as Elsa Schiaparelli seemed to mix and match such a diverse selection of styles and influences: Art Deco met Baroque while French Second Empire blended with Louis XVI Chinoiseries…All these objects illustrate the eclectic almost bohemian-like setting the designer had created for herself. It is hard not to think that only such an avant-garde and creative personality could assume mixing so many different genres – the sign of the surrealist movement she felt connected to.
The auction also highlighted her artistic friendships with objects imagined by the sculptor Alberto Giacometti, the illustrators Christian Bérard and Marcel Vertès or the photographer Man Ray: a fascinating fragment of 1930s modernist art.
In the whole, along the obvious financial logic behind the auction (I must admit I’m always a little disturb by the fact that trustees sell off objects from their ancestors like this), it was also a formidable situation for us curious historians to take a closer look at the intimate life of a famed fashion designer. Although we may have read numerous books or visited exhibitions that explained her work, we definitely got to know Elsa Schiaparelli better through her intimate collection that not only highlighted her inspirational taste but also brought us on a journey through her times’ contemporary art scene.
I do hope, as it happens in London and New York, this will make Parisian auction houses organise further major couture and fashion sales as we clearly miss them here!
You can browse the auction’s catalogue on Christie’s website.
Take a look at Heather Vaughan’s post about the designer.
Rediscover the MET’s exhibition uniting Miuccia Prada and Elsa Schiaparelli
Read her autobiography: Schiaparelli, Elsa. Shocking Life. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 2007.
Discover Showstudio’s Conversation between Hubert de Givenchy and Marisa Berenson.
We’ve received the applications and will begin reviewing them asap.
I emailed all applicants to let them know I have their materials. If you did not receive an email from me, I don’t seem to have it. So if you sent something that you believe wasn’t received please touch base by Wednesday. Thank you!
Email me if you would like to chat about the awards.
This week, Worn Through would like to highlight the January 2014 special focus issue of the Clothing and Textiles Research Journal: Fashion and Health. The five articles in this issue represent a range of issues on the topic, from tanning behavior to body image and from diabetes to disabilities. What role does fashion play in each of these issues, and how can healthier–and more inclusive–choices be made when considering this question? The editors urge researchers to develop educational programs and seek out opportunities to implement the research possibilities detailed in this issue.
1. Chang, H. J. J., Hodges, N., & Yurchisin, J. (2014). Consumers with disabilities: A qualitative exploration of clothing selection and use among female college students. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 32(1), 34-48.
As the presence of disabled consumers has become more prevalent in social and occupational life, attention to the clothing needs of consumers with disabilities has increased. However, research about disabled consumers and their dress behavior remains scant. This study is designed to understand disabled consumers’dress behavior, specifically clothing selection and meanings. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 disabled consumers. Five themes emerged as important to understanding their clothing behaviors: form and function, self-expression, social identity, self-efficacy, and symbols of victory. Themes are discussed relative to the literature on apparel meaning and consumer behavior, and findings are discussed within the framework of self-efficacy theory. Potential implications of this study and directions for future research are discussed. – Full Article Abstract
2. Eklund, A., & Masberg, B. A. (2014). Participation in roller derby, the influence on body image. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 32(1), 49-64.
Women’s flat track roller derby consists of two teams vying for points played on an oval track, and wearing quad skates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact participation in roller derby has on body image. An online survey was used to gather data from members of roller derby leagues (n = 1597) in the United States. The survey contained quantitative questions from the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) along with qualitative questions. Based upon the data, a typical respondent was Caucasian, 20 to 40 years of age, heterosexual, married/domestic partnership, and has a post-secondary degree. The null hypothesis was rejected as there was a significant difference when comparing means of the MBSRQ prior to joining and currently. Certain MBSRQ scales indicated a negative correlation with BMI. – Full Article Abstract
3. Evenson, S. L. (2014). Dress, Type 1 Diabetes, and adolescent development. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 32(1), 65-76.
The purpose of this white paper is to call for research on the intersection of dress, type 1 diabetes (T1D), and adolescent development. Management of T1D requires frequent blood glucose monitoring, and the individual is dependent on regular delivery of insulin through injections or an insulin pump. Much of the literature on T1D focuses on fostering healthy habits. The role of dress and identity is rarely addressed. The example of an adolescent teen with T1D is employed to demonstrate how equipment for blood glucose control fulfills the definition of dress. A review of literature reveals a body of knowledge on dress and identity, T1D and adolescent development, and T1D and identity. Interdisciplinary research on the intersection of these three factors is needed. At a point in life when most teens want to look unique but not too different from friends, managing the gear that maintains health and communicates diabetic identity must be better understood to support the patient. – Full Article Abstract
4. Shin, E., & Baytar, F. (2014). Apparel fit and size concerns and intentions to use virtual try-on: Impacts of body satisfaction and images of models’ bodies. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 32(1), 20-33.
The objectives of this study were to investigate whether images of female bodies shown in a website influence female consumers’ level of body satisfaction and to examine how these variables affect online shoppers’ concerns with garment fit and size and their intentions to use a virtual try-on model. We conducted an experiment using a 2 × 2 between-subject factorial design with 249 college students. The results showed the main effects of female bodies associated with body satisfaction on female consumers’ concerns with garment fit and size. We also found a negative relationship between body satisfaction and concerns with garment fit and size as well as a positive relationship between concerns and intentions to use virtual try-on technology. However, we found no significant effect of female bodies on female consumers’ body satisfaction. – Full Article Abstract
5. Yoo, J.-J., & Kim, H.-Y. (2014). Perceived negative health effect of tanning: The interface between tanning attitudes and behaviors. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 32(1), 6-19.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the perceived negative health effect of tanning (PNHET) and body-tanning attitudes and behaviors. A total of 333 college students with an average age of 19.8 years participated in the study. A majority of the participants were female (80.2%) and Caucasian (76.9%). Three body-tanning attitudes emerged from the data: pleasurable activity, physical attractiveness, and healthy behavior. The PNHET was negatively related to all three body-tanning attitudes and methods of tanning behaviors used (i.e., sunbathing, tanning beds, and sunless tanning product use). However, specific body-tanning attitudes independently influence the methods of body-tanning behaviors. Pleasurable activity was a significant attitude influencing indoor and outdoor tanning. College students seek tanning beds and tanning products, particularly when physical attractiveness is concerned. Healthy behavioral attitudes exist for outdoor tanning. Intervention strategies regarding body-tanning behaviors should focus on attitudinal changes, which specifically involve ultraviolet (UV) ray exposure. Educating the public about the negative health effects of tanning is still a very important intervention strategy to help individuals avoid excessive amount of harmful UV exposure and resultant skin cancer. Body-tanning behaviors, as a part of consumer culture, should change to minimize these unhealthy behaviors. – Full Article Abstract
Image credit: http://ctr.sagepub.com/content/current
In a Reverse Fashion: A Critical Agenda for Sustainable Fashion
May 19-20, 2014
The Centre for Fashion Studies at Stockholm University, Sweden, and University IUAV of Venice, Italy, have organized a two-day workshop for International PhD students on the topics of fashion and sustainability. The workshop aims to explore and enlarge the concept of “sustainable fashion”.
PhD students will be asked to discuss issues like:
- the working conditions of fashion professionals
- new ways of conceiving fashion and new behaviours of consuming it
- sustainability issues in a digitally networked and open-access environment
- the emergence of specific, and historically situated forms of fashion activism
PhD Students are invited to submit an abstract of 500 words about their PhD research by 24 February 2014.
For questions regarding submissions, please contact Marco Pecorari.
For the full posting and submission requirements, please visit the Centre for Fashion Studies website.
We are once again offering our Annual Research Award to our readers. This year, we have decided to distribute two awards, one to a student (any level) and one to a non-student.
Two awards for $250 each.
Award Details: The purpose of these awards is to provide funding to assist independent scholars, students, museum personnel or university instructors for professional projects in the field of fashion, dress, and textile studies. Holding an academic degree in the topic is not required for the awardee. This is not meant for institutions. Teams, groups, and co-researchers are accepted.
Application Deadline: Feb 1, 2014, awards decided by Mar 1 and distributed by Mar 15, 2014.
NOTE: Anyone who has been a contributor or intern with Worn Through within the past two years is ineligible (two years since Feb 1, 2012, going from the due date).
Purpose: The award could be used to assist with image licensing or other publication fees; travel such as that for research, interviews, or to see a collection; conference attendance fees if presenting; purchasing technology such as software or a recording device; or in any other way necessary toward completion or dissemination of the applicant’s project. This is a blog geared toward the study of dress from an academic perspective, thus, projects submitted for award consideration should be academic in approach and rigor, and should include history, theory, academic literature, and meet all appropriate standards of consent and protections from human subjects. Should the project require Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval for the applicant’s research, obtaining that approval shall be the sole responsibility of the applicant and proof should be included with the application if use of the award pertains to an IRB matter.
Details: The portion of the project that utilizes award funds must be completed BY DECEMBER 31, 2014. By the end of this time period the awardee is responsible for submitting a blog post for publication on Worn Through about the project and how the award was used as well as all related receipts.
Application: Send a document (Word, Pages, or PDF) of approximately 500 words with a proposed research plan and explain how the award would be of value to the research. If this is for a small portion of a larger project, please include details on the entire project, such as methodology and long-term goals. If this is for travel funds, explain what would be gained from said research trip or conference attendance.
Also, separate from the word count, include a budget worksheet for the entire project that would show how the award would contribute to the project’s success. Indicate which line items in the worksheet will be impacted by this award. Be specific about how this money would be used and how the applicant would benefit from these funds. Worn Through is looking to assist worthwhile projects get completed and disseminated, and aspires to assist those in financial need.
Additionally, include an approximately 100-200 word bio of each applicant included in the project and/or CV(s).
Contact: Email to Worn Through Founder & Editor Monica Sklar.
Selection Process: The Worn Through team will collaboratively select the recipients after reviewing all completed submissions. Only submissions complete by the deadline will be reviewed. We reserve the right to split the award in half if there are two equally deserving applications.
Best of Luck an all of your Research Projects and Thank You for Your Participation!
UPDATE: we’ve received enough correct entries for three winners. Thank you very much!
The correct answers were:
1. 1991 (I’d also accept 1977)
3. riot grrrl
4. Manic Panic
5. appearance labor and the authors I have been referencing are Peluchette, Karl, Rust 2006 (that wasn’t required but I’ll give them a shout-out)
As mentioned in another post as well as in a recent cross-posted interview my book Punk Style has recently come out globally. I’m super excited about this and want to share the book with readers. So, my publisher Bloomsbury has generously agreed to provide some copies for a giveaway on Worn Through!
I’ve decided to come up with a handful of trivia questions and the first three individuals to email me the correct answers to all 5 questions wins a copy of the book. US/UK/Europe replies only please (for book shipping purposes). Please include your shipping address in your email in case you are a winner.
1. What year is sometimes referred to as “the year punk broke”? There are two possible answers and I’ll accept either.
2. Malcolm McLaren and Vivienne Westwood produced a huge number of what garment that said Vive Le Rock! to sell to Teddy Boys for a large event at Wembley Stadium; however they barely sold any. This huge overstock laid the path for their ideas about distressed clothes, as McLaren and Westwood had to do something with all that material. They cut, ripped, and painted on them helping create the British punk look.
3. Babydoll dresses, barrettes, combat boots and vintage eyeglasses were aesthetic details of what movement related to punk that featured feminist bands and used zines and conventions to communicate ideas
4. Name the New York based store that first showcased punk apparel and then grew into a wide spread hair dye and cosmetics brand?
5. This academic concept is discussed in the book Punk Style and other related research I have participated in on punk. It is described as a “certain amount of physical and mental effort on the part of the attire wearer, a certain amount of dissonance between what individuals believe that they are expected to wear and what they would prefer to wear.” Name it.
Looking forward to your replies!